PRACTICAL PRINCIPLE OF HAKUIN ZEN |
Eshin Nishimura (à¤õ½û³ãá)
1. Historical Root of Hakuin Zen Tradition
2. Self-confidence and its Practice
3. Evil state of illusion
4. Definite awareness of the Reality
5. Passing through the Patriarchal gates
6. Non-attachment to the ultimate
7. How to live the ordinary life
8. Succession of Buddha-Dharma
9. Breeding of the Seed of Buddha
Tourie-Enji(ÔÔÖºêí± 1721-1792) is one of the greatest disciples under Hakuin-Ekaku ÛÜëßû´ùÍ(1685-1768), a restorer of Japanese Rinzai Zen Buddhism in Tokugawa era. He was especially respected among Hakuin¡¯s disciples as Delicate Tourei(Ú°á¬ªÎÔÔÖº misai-no-Tourei) for his carefulness in his Koan study(ÍëäÐÍïÜý Kouan-kuhuu). Maybe it is because of Tourei¡¯s inborn intelligence.
According to the Tourei¡¯s biography, upon arriving at Shouin-ji áæëãÞÑ for the first time, great master Hakuin asked Tourei to help his preparation for the discourse upon Kidouroku(úÈÓÑÖâ, Record of Hsu-t¡¯ang chih-yu úÈÓÑòªé× 1185-1269) for coming new semester, since Hakuin knew that Tourei had already learned almost all of Patriarchal records such as personal history, life episode, dialogue and so on, by heart at his age of twenty-three.
Five years later, twenty-eight years old, Torei¡¯s weak body got a heavy disease from too much private meditation at some layman¡¯s house in Kyoto. He came to know that his life is comming to an end within three to five years, so he wrote down two volumes of manuscript entitled ¡°The Theory of Unestinguished Lamp of Zen Buddhism(ðóÚ¦Ùíò×Á¤Öå Shuumon-mujintou-ron: for short, TULZ is used in this paper¡±) taking only thirty days. Recovering from disease, Tourei intended to burn up his manuscript, but Hakuin who thought this would be a kind enough guidance for Zen student under Koan Zen study put a stop it.
¡°TULZ¡± was published in 1800 that is eight years after Tourei¡¯s death, though Tourei himself had prohibited his disciples to open his manuscript to the public. It is our good fortune, however, to have this kind of rare systematic text book of Koan study published by his lay disciple after Torei¡¯s passing away, so that Hakuin¡¯s creative method of Koan Zen study is still at hand today in its original form, so that unestinguished lamp of Zen tradition is still living even in our days.
TULZ is not an ordinary record of Patriarchal teaching done from the standpoint of the truth of the first principle[ð¯ìéì¡ôô or daiichigitai in Jp.] like other texts, but the text described by Tourei¡¯s own hand for future use. Therefore it is written from standpoint of the truth of second principle[ð¯ì£ì¡ôô or dainigital in Jp.]. He arranges various kinds of Patriarchal episodes along with the procedure of Zen study from the entrance to the final attainment of Reality, so that Rinzai Zen students might be able to go along same path as the Patriarchs took for their deepening of Zen mind.
The first chapter of ¡°TULZ¡± is entitled ¡° Root of Zen Transmission¡±(ðóë¦ shuuyuu in Jp.) in which Tourei describes general history that is a transmission tree of Rinzai Zen tradition starting with Buddha and end up with his own master hakuin-ekaku.
Like other religions, Rinzai Zen takes importance upon its traditional history as well as its teaching. Or it might be better to say that history of Zen transmission itself is nothing but the essence of Zen Buddhism. Because Zen transmission has been only achieved through the indirect transmission of existential essence of Zen from master to his disciples, as existential philosopher Soren Kierkegaard ever pointed out by saying that the direct transmission is impossible in the case of transmission of the Truth. Therefore the discontinued continuity is only the form of transmission of the Buddha¡¯s Lamp. This means that there is no so-called continual history in Zen tradition but the series of each personal experience.
When Tourei entitles the first chapter ¡°The Reason of Zen tradition¡±(or ðóë¦ shuyu in Jp.), ¡°Reason¡± here means the historical base on which Zen Buddhism stands. Though this chapter is the historical description of Rinzai Zen transmission, it is still not a mere history of Rinzai Zen, but a ground on which Rinzai Zen is surely based. In fact, Tourei¡¯s way of description is not historical but simple arrangement of episodes in the life of Patriarchs. In this specific reason, a history of Rinzai Zen tradition is what is beyond the history itself
The specific reason why historical description could still be super-historical is because it is not a simple document of the Patriarchs, but the records of particular situations in which each Patriarch came to realization of Reality, and therefore they are called ¡°Ancient Samples and Episodes¡± Í¯öÎü¥Ôé that is so-called Koan(ÍëäÐ). Each Kouan(episode) is what has happened once in history and yet it happened as a full manifestation of Reality in each case. Therefore, Shuyu(ðóë¦ or Root of tradition) does not mean mere origin of Rinzai Zen history, but the ¡°Root¡± where the essence of Zen is manifested through the individual experience.
Therefore, what Tourei tries to describe in the first Chapter is not a simple introduction of this text, but the presentation of the essence of this text in which all other following chapters are also based upon.
In the very beginning of this chapter, Tourei admires Buddha¡¯s declaration of the nobility of his individual existence right after his birth as follows;
Stop talking! Your saying already betrays this Matter too much. Master Yun-men Wan-yen ever criticized you saying; ¡°If I were there with you at that moment, I would club him and give it to dog to eat. I wish you kept this world in peace¡±. (Eshin Nishimura Text published from The Institute for Zen Studies, 1992, page24)
In this way, Tourei demonstrates his admiration of Buddgha¡¯s birth in the negative way of saying to stress the significance of Buddha¡¯s coming into this world. All these way of saying shows Tourei¡¯s subjective standpoint, which is free from the tradition within the definite framework of Zen tradition. Here we may see the unique attitude of Rinzai Zen Buddhist monk to go beyond their own tradition for the purpose of going down to deep horizon where they can really meet with all patriarchs of history.
Second chapter of TULZ is entitled the self-confidence and its practice [ãááó sinshu in Jp.] where Tourei discusses the inevitable preparation for Zen student intending to begin Koan Zen study.
Here I dare to translate this particular Chinese term ãá not belief of faith as ordinarily done, because in Zen study the term ãá (sin) does not mean so-called religious act done toward some outer Being beyond man, but somehow means self-confidence for the Reality which is hopefully realized at the end of his way of Koan Zen study course. Torei writes as follows;
If a man wishes to achieve his path of Zen, in the very beginning, he has to have great root of self-confidence(ÓÞãáÐÆ Dai-shin-kon). Then what is this confidence?
In this second Chapter Tourei put stress also upon the importance of Vows of Bodhisattva(ÜÌß±ªÎÌíêÃ bosatu-no-seigan) as the fundamental condition for the beginner of Zen study. Needless to say, Vows of Boddhisattva is most indispensable to Zen study as Mahayana Buddhist practice, otherwise Zen study comes to be merely the self-centered. He writes as follows;
After the above confidence firmly settled, student must make Vows to himself not to abandon his study until he finally arrives at the achievement of his study.
3. Evil state of illusion
In this chapter, Tourei talks about the danger of the evil state, which appears along with the way of koan study. This dangerous state of mind called Genkyou(úÞÌÑ or literally translated the appearing state) is already taught as devil state(ØªÌÑ or makyon in Jp.) in the Buddhist canons or texts such as the 40th Chapter. of Part one of Maha-prajna-sutra(ÓÞÚõÍÈÌè), the 10th volume of Surangama-stura(âÏ×ÑåñÌè) and the 8th volume of Mo-ho-chih-kuan(Ø¤Ê¸òÎº)
Among various kinds of evil state of mind, Tourei calls our attention more to the good state(à¼ÌÑÍ£) or zenkyoukai in Jp.) than the evil, because man can easily guard himself from the unpleasant condition of his feeling, while he enjoys himself whenever he feels to be comfortable with the good feeling even though it is nothing but the illusion. Therefore, pleasant illusion which Zazen meditation brings into man is thought to be very dangerous.
Some examples of good state of mind are taken out by Tourei himself such as the view that the existing beings are all empty(ÛöÍöªÎÌ¸), view that everything is equal(ìéÚ«øÁÔõªÎÌ¸), view that the Reality is being manifested throughout the universe(úÞà÷î¼ªÎÌ¸), view that this body is perfect by itself(Ó×ô÷ñíãÀªÎÌ¸), and so on. All these states of view are only possible through deep meditation practice, therefore we should say this is the disturbance, or the necessary evil, which is happen on the way to the real goal of Zen way.
Medieval Japanese Zen Master Musou-soseki(ÙÓóëáÃà´ 1275-1351) is also talking about Madou(ØªÔ³ or Evil-path) in his Text ¡°Muchuu-mondou¡± (ÙÓñéÙýÓÍ or A Dialogue in Dream) as follows;
There are two kinds of Evil that are inner evil and outer evil. Outer evil means the Evil king(ØªèÝ or Maou) and his people(ØªÚÅ) who are coming from outside the Buddhist student and disturb him. The Evil king is called ô¸Øª(ô¸Øª or Tenma) since he is staying in the sixth Heaven(ð¯ë»ô¸) and so-called ô¸Ï·(Tengu or long-nosed goblin) are his people. That Evil king thinks all sentient being as his relatives, therefore he intends to disturb the sentient being who makes effort to enter the Buddha¡¯s way..... Even if there were no such disturbance from outside, in such a case as Buddhist student has delusion in his mind, or has attachment with incorrect view, or has self-pride of his achieved state, or sinks into meditation, or is proud of wisdom, or hopes to be released from suffering only for himself in the idea of his Arahat, or falls to the second level of compassion to the other(äñÌ¸ªÎí±Ýè), and so on. All these belong to the inner evil since they are all disturbances for the ultimate Bodhi(or Ùíß¾ÜÌð« or Mujyou-bodai in Jp.). (Nishimura¡¯s translation and comment of Muchuu-mondou published NHK Press, 1998, page29)
4. Definite awareness of the Reality
An anthentic evidence (or ãùñû jisshou in Jp.) of existence of Reality realized as a whole bodily experience is needless to say a core of whole procedure of koan Zen Practice, and that would happen when hard discipline under the Koan study reaches climax. A well-known phrase: ¡°A great awareness(or ÓÞçö taigo in Jp.)¡± is only possible amid great darkness or mass of doubt(or ÓÞë÷ taigi in Jp.)¡± is a principle of Koan study Zen(or Ê×ü¥àÉ Kanna Zen) demonstrated by Ta-hui Tuang-kao (ÓÞû´ðóÍÔ 1089-1163) in Sung dynasty China, and Japanese Koan Zen which was re-systematized by Hakuin-ekaku is direct descendant of this tradition.
In particular, Tourei is putting emphasis upon the necessity of visit with an authentic Zen master(Ù¥ÞÔ meisi or ïáÞÔ shousi in Jp.) whenever a student arrives at this experience of Self-realization, otherwise he will fall into the tremendously dangerous cave of self satisfaction. Tourei writes as follows;
Upon attaining a realization of Self Nature(Ì¸àõ kenshou in Jp.), Zen student has to visit an authentic master in order to remove the delusion of self-awareness(çöñéÚ» gochuu-no-mei). In old day, Huang-lung Szu-hsin(üÜ×£ÞÝãý
5. Passing through the Patriarchal gates
This Chapter called ¡°Toukan¡±(÷âÎ¼) is so to speak the checking upon the attained state of awareness(çöªê Satori in Jp.) by reflection on the mirror of Buddha¡¯s or Patriarchal paradigm. As well-known among people today, to deepen one¡¯s awareness of Reality through following the foot prints which Buddha or Patriarchs have ever marked is called Kouan Zen practice(ÍëäÐàÉáóú¼) and this is no other than the proper method which Rinzai Zen tradition started from Sung dynasty China and still practices today in Japanese Rinzai Zen.
In fact, Japanese Rinzai Zen has been able to maintain its traditional Lamp of Dharma only because of this somehow artificial looking method which was systematized by Hakuin-ekaku who was so much worried about declining of Japanese Rinzai Zen as he violently criticized Bankei-youkaku¡¯s unique ¡°Unborn Zen¡±(ÚïÐ¨çµöüªÎÝÕßæàÉ Hushou Zen), Ungo-kuyou¡¯s ¡°Meditating on Buddha Zen (ê£ËÜýñëìªÎæöÝÖàÉ Nembutu Zen) or Eihei-Dougen¡¯s Meditation-only Zen(çµøÁÔ³êªªÎñþÎ·öèñ¦ Sikan-taza) calling them ¡°a modern blind priest living in nothingness only(ÐÎÓÛÓ¨ÙíªÎÇØã¬ Kindai danmu no kassou)¡± or ¡°the evil party of silent meditation(ÙùðÎªÎÞ÷ÓÚ Mokushou no jyatou)¡± and so on.
Tourei writes in this Chapter as follows;
For the purpose of bringing student to the ultimate attainment of self realization of Reality(ÓÞçöôËî¼), Hakuin systematized traditional paradigmatic episodes(Í¯öÎü¥Ôé) into the more effective order(ÍëäÐô÷Í§). Koan system itself is, however not opened in any document form, but secretly transmitted through Nissitu-sanzen(ìýãøóÑàÉ) or private interview of student with Roshi(ÒÇÞÔ) in small room of the monastery. And contents of so-called seventeen hundred Koans(ô¶öÒÛÝöÎªÎÍëäÐ) are told to be different each other according to the two main branches, that is to say Inzan-branch(ëßß£Í§) and Takujyu-branch(öññ¶Í§), that were separated under Gasan-jitou(ä±ß£í±Ô¡ 1727-1797) who is the one of Hakuin¡¯s Greatest disciple.
However, both branches are at least keeping the fundamental Koan system which Hakuin set for his students. Or it would be better to say that Hakuin confirmed Koan system which had already been developed by the Japanese Rinzai Zen patriarchs in early days of Japanese Zen such as En¡¯ni-ben¡¯nen(êì³Ü©ê 1202-1280) or Nampo-jyoumain(ÑõøÝáÉÙ¥ 1235-1308). These Patriarchs divided Chinese Koans into three groups according to their function, namely Richi(ìµöÈ or Ultimate of Truth), Kikan(Ñ¦Î¼ or Skillful Method) and koujyon(ú¾ß¾ or Non-attachment).
¡°Richi¡± is the group of words, which show the True Reality and most of them are extracted from Buddhist scripture and Patriarchal record. All Koan of Richi are the theoretical expression of Buddhist theology or State of Zen mind, so students practice Zazen meditation(ñ¦àÉ) reflecting his mind upon the Koan so that he will realize authentic meaning of each phrase through his bodily experience of awareness(Satori çöªê or Kenshou Ì¸àõ in Jp.)
¡°Kikan¡± is the group of the episodes by which student knows how the Patriarchs of early days of China came to self realization of Reality, and by refelcting upon those stories through Practice of Zazen meditation, he might attain the living mind of the Patriarch or Kassoi(üÀðÓëò) which is called Satori.
¡°Koujyou¡± is the group of Koan through which student wipes the dust which he get by above two groups koan. In other words, student has to remove so called the attachment of Buddha-view(Bukken ÝÖÌ¸ in Jp.) or Dharma-view (Hokken ÛöÌ¸) or his Pride of Ultimate attainment of Reality so that he might return to what Buddha or Patriarchs really taught which is nothing but original Ordinariness(Heijyoutei øÁßÈî¼).
Hakuin opened these three divisions into the five, that is to say Hossin(Ûöãó or dharma-kaya), Kikan(Ñ¦Î¼ or Skill), Gonsen(åëï¬ or Word expression), Nantou(Ññ÷â or difficult to pass through) and Koujyou(ú¾ß¾ or Non-attachment).
6. Non-attachment to the ultimate
As I already mentioned above, the qualitatively different path still remained for the student as a final part of his Zen study jhourney and it is called Kojyon(ú¾ß¾). A well-known phrase: ¡°This particular path of Koujyou has never been transmitted by any past Saint¡± (ú¾ß¾ñýìéÖØ, ô¶á¡Üôîî). This path is specially called ¡°Smallness of Koujyou¡±(ú¾ß¾ñýÞÁí) which means that this path is the entirely different from the preceding path where student has passed, or it would be better to be said that this path is the total negation of what has been experienced before. Therefore student should not continue his quantitative progress of path walked but jump into the entirely different realm of quality. Chinese Patriarchs teach this jump by saying: ¡°Have one more step at the top of hundred feet pole!¡± Here Tourei writes as follows;
Here is a path of non-attachment. This is called the One which even patriarchs never transmitted before. ..... This is what all Patriarchs ever transmitted from one to the other. (Nishimura¡¯s Text, page92)
Next chapter of TULZ is entitled Rikiyuu(ÕôéÄ or daily Use) in which Torei talks about the way of living daily life for the student who achieved his Zen study. A student who came to be free from tradition and returned to his own self has to live his daily life authentically(×ÛôÂÝÂÙ¥ risen-hunmyou in Jp.) His ordinary daily life has to be the continuity of Right meditation(ïáÒ·ßÓáÙ Shounen-souzoku in Jp.).
As Bodhi-Dharma says, There are many who attain the Buddha¡¯s Way, but very few who are practicing it. And, moreover, this practice should have no traces(ÙÒÁ¾îæ Mosshouseki in Jp.). Torei calls this kind of daily use ¡°Wisdom-use beyond scale(Ì«èâªÎò±éÄ kakugai no chiyuu)¡± because nobody knows his Saint-ness.
In this Chapter of Succession, Tourei discusses the Importance of Succession of Buddhas Lamp. Succession (ÞÔã¯ Shijyou in Jp.) means to succeed to the Wisdom-life of Buddha(ÝÖªÎû´Ù¤ Butu-no-emyou in Jp.) from certain Zen master who is supposed to be a carrier of Zen Buddhist tradition. For this very reason, student who lives his life in the daily use of attained Reality has to go out of his home for searching authentic Zen master. If student kept staying within his enjoyment of Awareness of Reality, he would remain inside of the mere self-satisfaction. Such a self-satisfaction is called the ¡°Heresy of Selfish awareness without Master¡±(ÙíÞÔÔ¼çöªÎèâÔ³ musidokugo-no-gedou in Jp.). Tourei writes upon this danger as follows;
A matter of Succession is the most central. Ancient Zen student who arrives at the source of Self-awareness and passes a certain numbers of Patriarchal gates, used to travel throughout the country without any doubt about Reality and have a discussion or fix to the prices of commodities after discussion(ÙýÓÍßÂÕá Mondou-shouryou in Jp.) with any person he meet. But sometime later on, he happened to meet Great Zen master who has Great eyes of Dharma(ÓÞäÑÙÍ daiganmoku in Jp.), and was compelled to realize the essence of Zen existing in completely different realm that is called Non-attachment, from the Reality he had held until that time. Then he quits his travelling and begins his sincere study under the Great master. In this way, he arrives at Unmovable confidence of his reality. This is the time of Succession(ÞÔã¯). Since that time, he lives with unforgettable thanks to the master about the kindness he received. Such a student should be called ¡°Dharma-successor¡±(ÛöÞË Hassu in Jp.). the Patriarchs of Zen tradition all the same have transmitted Fruit of Zen in this way. (Nishmura¡¯s Text, page 119)
In other word, Succession is not possible so far as the master and the student stand in opposition to each other, but only possible when student comes down to the transcendentally deep level where he may touch directly with transcendental Non-self of the Master. As we already studied in the above Chapter, this transcendence is only possible with one important step beyond the ultimate self realization of the Reality which was called Koujyou or Non-attachment. However to arrive at such complete level of Non-attachment is so hard that even Wu-tsu Fa-yen(çéðÓÛöæÑ ?-1104) says; ¡°I have studied Zen for twenty years, and now I feel the shame to know my incompleteness(ä²ß³ì£ä¨Ò´, ÐÑÛ°òÅâº).
In this chapter entitled ¡°Chouyon íþå×¡± or Breeding of the seed of Buddha, Torei talks about importance of cultivation of Buddha-seed which student sowed deep in his body through his long Zen meditation. He writes as follows;
Yuan-wu Ko-chin(È¯çöÐºÐÃ 1063-1135) says; ¡°Ancient Masters used to live their lives in the humble hermitage or stone cave and take poor meals prepared in broken pans, after he attained Buddha-way(ÝÖÔ³). They never hoped to be known in the world and occasionally spew a word to switchover student¡¯s mind to transmit Buddha¡¯s Dharma¡±. Therefore, what Zen student has to do is only to
The final Chapter of TULZ is the conclusion or the End of long Path of Zen study. Or we should say that it was the ultimate purpose to begin study of Zen when a student was standing at the gate of Zen Path. Since Zen Buddhism is based upon the Mahayana Buddhist thought, no matter how this particular branch is hoping to realize a Reality in his own-self and therefore it might be called the religious way of Self-inquiry(ÐùÞÀÏ¼Ù¥ªÎú¼Ô³) lasting throughout a whole life, it should be done for the salvation of all sentient Beings. Here the title of this Chapter ¡°Currency¡± (êü÷× Ruzuu in Jp.) means the spread of the Buddha Dharma all over this earth.
However Currency of Buddha Dharma might not be the same as so-called religious Mission or social service done under the name of religion. For Tourei, ¡°currency¡± actually means transmission of Unextinguished Lamp of Zen (in fact, this was the title of his work) to only a few students. Torei writes as follows;
Yen-tou chuan-huo(äÜÔéîïüÃ 828-887) says¡¯ ¡°Whenever you intend to demonstrate Great teaching of Buddha, you have to let it issue from your own heart each by each, so that it fills the whole heaven and earth for the sake of all other beings. ¡°I hope that Buddha¡¯s Dharma would last forever by the currency that is possible in a way of gaining of an authentic Seed of Dharma. What I worry is the Buddha Dharma is now in danger like the eggs been piled up! I really do not hope that Buddha Dharma extinguish so easily in future. Situation is like the case that the several persons are traveling through the stormy field. And the all lanterns are almost going to be blown out by the storm. However, if there were one person in the party gives his effort only to concentrate his mind upon a lantern not to extinguish, all other people would be saved by that one lantan. (Nishimura¡¯s Text, page131)